Welsh Assembly Government Encourages Parents To Have Children Under Five Vaccinated Against Swine Flu, Wales

The Welsh Assembly Government is encouraging parents/guardians of children aged from six months and under 5 years of age to have their children vaccinated against swine flu. Children in this age group are far more likely to end up in hospital if they contract the virus and vaccination offers the best protection against it.

To highlight the importance of vaccinating young children, Wales’ Senior Medical Officer, Dr Sara Hayes, is today visiting the Oaktree Surgery, Brackla, Bridgend to meet some of the first children in Wales to receive their jabs.

Parents should wait until they are contacted by their local GP or health service about arranging an appointment for their children. Letters to parents and guardians inviting them to make appointments with their local GP surgery have started to be issued in some areas.

Dr Sara Hayes said:

“Young children are particularly susceptible to swine flu and we want to do all we can to encourage parents to take up the invitation to have their children vaccinated against it. GPs are able to provide information on the virus and answer any questions a parent may have.

“Whilst the numbers of people contracting swine flu have gone down in the last few weeks it is too early for us to assume the threat of infection is over. Young children have higher rates of admission to critical care units than other age groups and unfortunately some children under 5 in the UK have died as a result of swine flu. I urge all parents to contact their GP as soon as they are offered an appointment for their child/children.

Vaccinating young children is the second phase in a programme of offering vaccination to the people most at risk from swine flu. The vaccine will continue to provide immunity for several years during which time the H1N1 swine flu virus is likely to still be circulating.

Health Minister, Edwina Hart said:
“We will be offering this important preventative measure to approximately 160,000 children. This is a huge undertaking and shows how the recently created seven local health boards, and GP surgeries, are working closely together to provide an excellent frontline service to the people of Wales.

“I would like to thank them for their commitment to protecting the public against swine flu and the work they have already done to vaccinate more than 300,000 people in the highest priority groups.”

Health professional organisations representing the health profession in Wales have given their support to the vaccination programme.

Chairman of the BMA’s GP Committee Wales, Dr David Bailey, said: “Regarding swine flu vaccination for the under 5s, GPs and health boards across Wales are working co-operatively to free up time to deliver this important public health measure for our children. The provision of protected time to deliver the programme quickly is a good example of the way practices can work with the NHS to benefit patients. Childhood vaccination is a vital part of protecting all our patients and GP practices remain firmly committed to supporting it within the holistic service we provide for our patients.”

Martin Semple, Head of RCN Institute in Wales said:
“The RCN in Wales is pleased that the vaccination programme for swine flu is being extended to young children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years. While the vast majority of people with swine flu have a mild illness we know that young children are particularly vulnerable to severe illness as a result of swine flu and this has resulted in some young children being hospitalised. Vaccination against swine flu is the most effective method of protecting people from catching swine flu.”

Notes

The Welsh Assembly Government is providing communications support to local NHS organisations for the roll out of this next stage in the vaccination programme. A leaflet has been produced and is also available on the Welsh Assembly Government website and can be accessed here.

For most people Swine Flu is mild. Patients typically have a fever or a high temperature and two or more of the following symptoms: unusual tiredness, headache, runny nose, sore throat, shortness of breath or cough, loss of appetite, aching muscles, diarrhoea or vomiting.

Some people are more likely to be seriously ill with swine flu. These can include young children over six months and under five years of age with no underlying health conditions. They may need to go to hospital and, in the very worst cases, some may die.

Source
Welsh Assembly Government

CSHL Neuroscientist Awarded ‘Transformative’ NIH Research Grant

Anthony Zador, Ph.D., Professor of Biology and Program Chair in Neuroscience at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), has been awarded a $2.17 million, 5-year grant by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)’s Transformative Research Projects Program (T-R01). The T-R01 program, supported by the NIH Common Fund (formerly the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research), is a unique research opportunity that encourages researchers to rethink the way science is conducted and propose truly daring ideas.

“Complex research projects, even exceptionally high impact ones, are tough to get funded without the necessary resources to assemble teams and collect preliminary data. The TR01 awards provide a way for these high impact projects to be pursued,” said NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. Although these projects are deemed high-risk, they have the potential to create or overturn fundamental paradigms and impact a broad area of biomedicine.
Zador’s T-R01 -funded research project is aimed at one of neuroscience’s most fundamental, but as-yet-unknown entities: the ‘connectome’ or the complete wiring diagram of the brain. The brain is an extremely complex network, consisting of billions of neurons interconnected by trillions of synapses or junctions where electrical currents are transmitted. To understand brain function, detailed knowledge of these connections – questions such as which neurons connect synaptically with which other neurons, and where in the brain this interaction occurs – is critical.

“Disruption of this connectivity may cause many neuropsychiatric diseases including autism and schizophrenia, but only a minute fraction of these connections have been mapped to date,” explains Zador. “The goal of my project is to develop a novel, high-throughput method to probe the connectivity of neural circuits at the level of individual neurons in mice.” This method would allow Zador to analyze a large numbers of these connections in a rapid, economic way.

By compiling such a connectivity atlas in animal models, Zador hopes to determine if and how disruption of connectivity contributes to neuropsychiatric diseases such as mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia.

Zador is the third CSHL scientist to receive a T-R01 grant. His colleagues in the CSHL neuroscience program, Partha Mitra, Ph.D., and Josh Dubnau, Ph.D., received NIH’s transformative grants in 2009, when the T-R01 program was launched.
“My congratulations to Tony Zador on receiving this prestigious, highly competitive award,” said CSHL President and cancer researcher Bruce Stillman, Ph.D. “His achievement, and that of Drs. Mitra and Dubnau, are a testament to CSHL’s passionate commitment to nurture scientists in their pursuit of answers to the most important questions in biomedical research.”

Source:
Hema Bashyam
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

RCGP’s Comment On The Chief Medical Officer Advice To GPs On Annual Flu Campaign, UK

Commenting on this announcement, the Royal College of General
Practitioners (RCGP) said:

“We want to praise the work of GPs who last year delivered the highest
ever flu vaccination rate of 75.3% in the over 65s. With this latest
announcement GPs will need to have a good idea of how long we will be
without full stocks of the flu vaccine. In the meantime, we would urge
GPs to intensify their arrangements to deliver the vaccine they have
over a shorter period. Ideally additional protection from flu should be
offered to the at-risk groups before November when flu often begins to
set in. We also support the CMO’s recommendations on which at-risk
groups to target with the vaccine first to avoid pressure on GP
vaccination systems.”

Dr Douglas Fleming, Director of the RCGP Flu Unit

rcgp

Perceived Control Improves Asthma Health Status

Patients with asthma who believe they have control of their condition are likely to report improved asthma-related health status and have a decreased risk of severe asthma attacks. In a new study out of the University of California, San Francisco, researchers followed 865 patients (mean age 60 years) hospitalized for asthma for a median of 1.9 years after hospital discharge. Researchers collected demographic information, asthma history, perceived asthma control, and measured emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for asthma. Results indicated that greater perceived control was associated with better physical health status, better asthma-related quality of life, fewer days of restricted activity due to asthma, and lower asthma severity scores. A multivariate model also showed that greater perceived control was associated with significantly decreased prospective risk of ED visits and hospitalizations for asthma. This study appears in the November issue of CHEST, the peer-reviewed journal of the American College of Chest Physicians.

Newsbriefs from the journal Chest, November 2006

Contact: Jennifer Stawarz

American College of Chest Physicians

Common Reasons for Not Taking Asthma Meds Don’t Hold Up

Financial and access barriers to health care are frequently cited reasons for people not taking prescribed medications; however, a new study shows that many patients do not refill their medication, even when these barriers are removed.

When researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Children’s Hospital of Alabama provided 296 children with asthma (ages 6 to 13) in Birmingham, AL, with free rescue and controller medication and instructed them to call in for a refill, the overwhelming majority did not.

To date, 213 children (72 percent), have never refilled their controller medication, and only 36 children (17 percent) have refilled their prescription at the expected rate.

CHEST 2005 abstract highlights

Jennifer Stawarz
jstawarzchestnet
American College of Chest Physicians
chestnet

Bronchial Thermoplasty Demonstrates Long Term Safety Benefits In Asthma Patients

Asthmatx Inc., presented positive five-year data from the Asthma Intervention Research (AIR) Trial, which evaluated the safety of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) with the Alair® System. The data demonstrated the absence of clinical complications and the maintenance of stable lung function over a five year period post-BT in patients with moderate to severe asthma. The data was presented in a poster at the annual meeting of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) in New Orleans.

“With the addition of this new long-term data, I can now confidently tell my patients whose disease is poorly controlled, despite receiving the highest doses of standard asthma medications, that the procedure has demonstrated a stable safety profile for at least five years,” stated Dr. Gerard Cox, Professor of Medicine, McMaster University (Ontario, Canada) and lead author of the poster. “The present findings from the AIR Trial echo data from other controlled trials that demonstrated BT is safe and beneficial for these patients in the first year after treatment.”

The data showed that over five years:

– The percent of patients reporting respiratory adverse events remained stable

– Hospitalizations and emergency room visits for respiratory symptoms remained stable

– Pulmonary function (FEV1) remained stable

– No incidences of pneumothorax, intubation, mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrhythmias or death as a result of BT treatment over the five year follow-up

BT, which is the first device-based asthma treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is a novel outpatient procedure that delivers precisely controlled thermal energy to reduce excess airway smooth muscle that is associated with airway constriction in patients with asthma. By decreasing the ability of the airways to constrict, this new treatment has been shown to help patients with severe asthma gain substantially better control over their disease.

In the period immediately following BT, there was an expected transient increase in the frequency and worsening of respiratory-related symptoms, which were of the type expected following bronchoscopy in patients with asthma. These events typically occurred within a day of the procedure and resolved on average within seven days with standard care.

The AIR Trial was a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study that evaluated the safety and effectiveness of BT in patients with moderate to severe asthma. Positive safety and effectiveness data at one year post-BT were published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in March 2007. BT-treated patients have been followed for five years post-procedure to evaluate longer-term safety.

“This demonstration of long-term safety, combined with the therapeutic benefits demonstrated in a series of three randomized controlled clinical studies, is extremely uncommon for a medical device at the time of FDA approval,” said Glen French, CEO of Asthmatx. “It provides strong support for the adoption of BT as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of severe asthma in adults.”

About Asthma

Asthma is one of the most common and costly diseases in the world. The prevalence of asthma has grown in recent decades, and there is no cure. According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), more than 20 million Americans have asthma, and managing asthma consumes over $18 billion of healthcare resources each year. In the U.S. each year, asthma attacks result in approximately 10 million outpatient visits, 2 million emergency rooms visits, 500,000 hospitalizations, and 4,000 deaths.

About Bronchial Thermoplasty Delivered by the Alair System

The Alair® Bronchial Thermoplasty System is indicated for the treatment of severe persistent asthma in patients 18 years and older whose asthma is not well controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and long acting beta agonists. The Alair® System is not for use in patients with an active implantable electronic device or known sensitivity to medications used in bronchoscopy. Previously treated airways of the lung should not be retreated with the Alair® System. Patients should be stable and suitable to undergo bronchoscopy. The most common side effect of BT is an expected transient increase in the frequency and worsening of respiratory-related symptoms.

Bronchial thermoplasty is performed through the working channel of a standard flexible bronchoscope that is introduced through a patient’s nose or mouth, and into their lungs. The tip of the small diameter Alair catheter is expanded to contact the walls of targeted airways. Controlled thermal energy is then delivered to the airway walls to reduce the presence of excess airway smooth muscle that narrows the airways in patients with asthma. The minimally invasive procedure, like many other flexible endoscopy procedures, is done under moderate sedation, and the patient returns home the same day.

About Asthmatx

Based in Sunnyvale, Calif., Asthmatx is a privately-held medical device company that designs, develops and manufactures catheter based medical devices incorporating thermal energy for patients with severe asthma. Asthmatx’s first offering, bronchial thermoplasty delivered by the Alair System, is a novel device-based treatment option for patients with severe asthma. The Alair System has been approved for use in the U.S. by the FDA and has received a CE Mark for use in the European Union.

Alair, Asthmatx and the Asthmatx logo are registered trademarks of Asthmatx, Inc.

Source: Asthmatx Inc

Adams Respiratory Therapeutics Completes Repurchase Of Manufacturing Assets And Operations In Fort Worth, Texas, From Cardinal Health

Adams Respiratory
Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: ARxT) today announced that it has completed its
previously announced repurchase of the manufacturing assets and operations
in Fort Worth, Texas, from Cardinal Health.

As disclosed in an SEC filing on Aug. 2, Adams consummated the
acquisition from Cardinal Health on July 31, 2006. Under the terms of the
Asset Purchase Agreement, the Company paid Cardinal $24 million upfront, as
part of the $28 million in total cash payments, as previously disclosed.
The remaining $4 million will be paid on a quarterly basis during fiscal
year 2007.

Investor Conference Call and Webcast

Adams management will conduct an investor conference call and webcast
on Tuesday, Aug. 8, 2006, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT), to review financial and other
information related to the plant buyback. Michael J. Valentino, president
and CEO, and David P. Becker, executive vice president, CFO and treasurer,
will host the conference call. A slide presentation to accompany the audio
webcast of the conference call will be available by going to the Investor
Relations web site, investor.adamsrt.

To listen live to the call, dial 1-877-669-8882 or 1-706-758-9391. A
replay of the call will be available starting at approximately 11:30 a.m.
on Aug. 8 through 5 p.m. on Aug. 15. To listen to the replay, dial
1-800-642- 1687 or 1-706-645-9291 and enter the conference ID# 4040380.

A live audio webcast of the conference call also will be available by
going to the Calendar of Events section of Adams’ Investor Relations web
site, investor.adamsrt. A replay of the webcast will be
available starting at approximately 10:30 a.m. on Aug. 8 through 5 p.m. on
Sept. 8.

About Adams Respiratory Therapeutics, Inc.

Adams is a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on the late-stage
development, commercialization and marketing of over-the-counter and
prescription pharmaceuticals for the treatment of respiratory disorders.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release may contain certain “forward-looking” statements.
Such forward-looking statements can be identified by the words “expect,”
“plan,” “seeks,” “believe,” “intend,” and similar expressions and are
subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to
differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Factors
that could cause actual results to differ materially include risk factors
set forth under the headings “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking
Statements”, “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of
Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Adams’ Rule 424(b)(4)
Prospectus filed with the SEC on December 9, 2005 and under Item 1A. Risk
Factors in Adams’ Quarterly Report on Form 10- Q for the period ended March
31, 2006. Except to the extent required by applicable securities laws,
Adams is not under any obligation to (and expressly disclaims any such
obligation to) update its forward-looking statements, whether as a result
of new information, future events, or otherwise. All statements contained
in this press release are made only as of the date of this presentation.

Adams Respiratory Therapeutics, Inc.
adamsrt

Possible Vaccine For Mesothelioma Proven Safe

Researchers have demonstrated the safety of a potential vaccine against mesothelioma, a rare cancer associated primarily with asbestos exposure. The vaccine, which infuses uses a patient’s own dendritic cells (DC) with antigen from the patient’s tumor, was able to induce a T-cell response against mesothelioma tumors.

“[This] is the first human study on DC-based immunotherapy in patients with mesothelioma,” wrote Joachim G Aerts M.D., Ph.D., a pulmonary physician at Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands.

The findings have been published online ahead of print publication in the American Thoracic Society’s American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

The U.S. and other developed countries have prohibited the use of asbestos for decades, but the time between asbestos exposure and diagnosis of mesothelioma can up to 50 years. The incidence of mesothelioma, therefore, is still on the rise and expected to continue to increase until 2020. Once diagnosed, mesothelioma has a median survival time of 12 months. The standard chemotherapeutic treatment only improves survival time by about three months.

The anticipated increase in the incidence of mesothelioma, together with the paucity of treatment options, has spurred considerable interest in the development of new therapies. Immunotherapy, which uses the body’s own immune system to target and destroy cancer cells, has been shown to have some promise.

“The possibility to harness the potency and specificity of the immune system underlies the growing interest in cancer immunotherapy,” said Dr. Aerts. “One such approach uses the patient’s own DC to present tumor-associated antigens and thereby generate tumor-specific immunity.”

Building upon their previous research which demonstrated that DC vaccinations induced anti-tumor immunity and conferred a survival benefit in mice, Dr. Aerts and colleagues sought to test the clinical relevance of their finding. After recruiting 10 human patients recently diagnosed with malignant pleural mesothelioma of the epithelial subtype, they cultured immature DC from their blood and exposed the DC to the antigen produced by the patients’ tumors. The DC were also exposed to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), which was used as a surrogate marker to show an immune response. The DC were then matured and injected back into the patients in three doses over a two-week interval.

Serum samples from all patients showed a significant increase of pre- versus post-vaccine antibodies to KLH. In the four patients whose tumor material was sufficient for testing, there was clear induction of cytotoxicity against their own tumors after vaccination. Three patients showed signs of tumor regression, though this could not be conclusively or directly attributed to the vaccine.

Encouragingly, while eight of the patients developed flu-like symptoms in response to the vaccinations, the symptoms normalized after one day in all but one of the patients. There were no signs of autoimmune diseases in the patients provoked by the vaccination, nor other serious side effects.

“The major problem in mesothelioma is that the immunosuppressive environment caused by the tumor will negatively influence our therapy so we are now working on a method to lower this immunosuppressive environment,” said Dr. Aerts. “We hope that by further development of our method it will be possible to increase survival in patients with mesothelioma and eventually vaccinate persons who have been in contact with asbestos to prevent them from getting asbestos related diseases.”

Source
American Thoracic Society (ATS)

American Red Cross Issues One-Month Progress Report For Haiti Earthquake

The American Red Cross issued a one-month progress report on its efforts to provide food, water, relief supplies, shelter, healthcare, family services and other assistance since the January 12 earthquake in Haiti.

“Every day since the earthquake, we have been focused on getting aid into the hands of those who need it most,” said Gail McGovern, president and CEO with the American Red Cross. “The American people have entrusted us with this responsibility, and we remain committed to helping the people of Haiti cope with their losses.”

Since the earthquake, the American Red Cross has raised approximately $255 million for the Haiti relief and recovery efforts. To date, it has spent or committed $80 million, with approximately 69 percent of the funds spent or committed for food and water; 20 percent for shelter; and 11 percent for health and family services. As the response progresses and recovery begins, the Red Cross will continue to support these priority areas and longer-term assistance initiatives.

Food, Water and Other Relief Items

The American Red Cross has provided 3 million pre-packaged meals to the United Nations World Food Programme as well as $30 million in funding to help feed an additional 1 million people for a month. To meet the dire need for clean water, it has also distributed more than 1 million water-purification sachets as well as containers that allow people to clean and carry water. The American Red Cross is also providing supplies for 130,000 people and working with Red Cross teams from other nations distributing relief items, such as blankets, kitchen supplies, hygiene kits and buckets.

Shelter

More than 1 million people in Haiti are in need of shelter. Leaders representing more than 20 Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, including the American Red Cross, gathered this week in Montreal, Canada for a two-day summit to develop and coordinate a comprehensive approach to respond to Haiti’s immediate and long-term needs.

“The challenges to quickly develop and deliver appropriate transitional shelters, and to do so prior to the rainy season, are immense,” said David Meltzer, senior vice president of international services with the American Red Cross. “This week’s meetings establish both a commitment and process to quickly shelter tens of thousands of survivors.”

In coordination with other relief agencies, the Red Cross aims to address the complex shelter situation in Haiti through a combination of strategies, including:

- Providing local families with solutions that will encourage them to rebuild safely near their pre-disaster homes

- Supporting host families who are housing displaced people

- Supporting people in post-quake settlements by providing both tarps and tents

Health and Family Services

Since the earthquake, American Red Cross has provided nearly 750 units of blood for earthquake survivors, more than 50 Creole-speaking interpreters for the USNS Comfort hospital ship, and $600,000 worth of food for the mobile clinics and hospitals operated by other Red Cross teams in Haiti.

In the United States, the American Red Cross has been providing welcoming services, shelter and other support for repatriated citizens and medical evacuees who arrived home following the earthquake. In addition, the American Red Cross is helping people find and reestablish contact with their loved ones in Haiti through its international family tracing service ??????” a form of assistance that is also being provided by the Red Cross in Haiti.

Looking Ahead

It is clear that what took minutes to destroy will take many years and the collective support from governments and relief agencies across the globe to help rebuild. Because of extraordinary support from the American public, the American Red Cross will continue to play an important role in relief efforts in the months ahead.

“The needs are great, but the generous support of the American people is making a difference every day,” said McGovern.

To learn more and read the complete report, please visit redcross/haiti.

You can help the victims of countless crises, like the recent earthquake in Haiti, around the world each year by making a financial gift to the American Red Cross International Response Fund, which will provide immediate relief and long-term support through supplies, technical assistance and other support to help those in need. The American Red Cross honors donor intent. If you wish to designate your donation to a specific disaster, please do so at the time of your donation by mailing your donation with the designation to the American Red Cross, P.O. Box 37243, Washington, D.C. 20013 or to your local American Red Cross chapter. Donations to the International Response Fund can be made by phone at 1-800-REDCROSS or 1-800-257-7575 (Spanish) or online at redcross.

Source
American Red Cross

Popular Stomach Acid Reducer Triples Risk Of Developing Pneumonia

A popular stomach-acid reducer used to prevent stress ulcers in critically ill patients needing breathing machine support increases the risk of those patients contracting pneumonia threefold, according to researchers at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

Hospital-acquired pneumonia is the leading cause of infection-related deaths in critically ill patients. It increases hospital stays by an average of seven to nine days, cost of care, and the risk of other complications.

“As best we can tell, patients who develop hospital-acquired pneumonia or ventilator-acquired pneumonia have about a 20 to 30 percent chance of dying from that pneumonia,” said senior study author David L. Bowton, M.D., professor and head of the Section on Critical Care in the Department of Anesthesiology. “It’s a significant event.”

The study, published in a recent issue of CHEST, compared treatment with two drugs that decrease stomach acid: ranitidine, marketed under the name ZantacTM, and pantoprazole, marketed under the name ProtonixTM or PrilosecTM.

Both drugs decrease stomach acid, but the newer pantoprazole is considered more powerful and has become the drug of choice in many hospitals.

However, in the analysis of 834 patient charts, the researchers found that hospitalized cardiothoracic surgery patients treated with pantoprazole were three times more likely to develop pneumonia.

“We conducted this study, in part, because we thought we were seeing more pneumonias than we were used to having,” said study co-author Marc G. Reichert, Pharm.D., pharmacy coordinator for surgery at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

Both acid-reducing drugs can make the stomach a more hospitable place for bacteria to colonize. Patients on breathing machines sometimes develop pneumonia when stomach secretions reflux into the lungs.

Current treatment guidelines to prevent pneumonia recommend raising the head of the bed for patients on breathing machines, which reduces the risk of stomach secretions getting into the lungs.

But the study’s findings suggest some other steps could keep critically ill patients from developing ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Doctors should consider whether an acid reducer is needed at all, Bowton said. The occurrence of stress ulcer bleeding has gone down in recent years, perhaps because patients with breathing tubes are fed earlier, and food in the stomach may neutralize or reduce the effects of stomach acid.

Bowton added that in cases where an acid reducer is needed, ranitidine is recommended, given the apparent decreased risk in developing pneumonia.

Doctors should stop using the drug as soon as the risk of bleeding passes – once the patient is off the breathing machine and eating, either on his/her own or through a feeding tube.

“Stopping the drugs earlier appears to be the best thing for patients,” Reichert said.

Todd A. Miano, Pharm.D., formerly of Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center and now with the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, is the study’s lead author. Co-authors, all from Wake Forest University School of Medicine, are Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D., and Drew A. MacGregor, M.D., of the Department of Anesthesiology; and Edward H. Kincaid, M.D., of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery.

Source:
Shannon Koontz

Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center

View drug information on Ranitidine Capsules.